Robert Gagne is considered to be one of the foremost contributors to the systematic approach to instructional design. He developed a series of studies and works that explained what he (and others) believed to be good instruction based on the information processing model of the mental events that occur when adults are presented with various stimuli and focuses on the learning outcomes and how to arrange specific instructional events to achieve those outcomes.
The assumption is that different types of learning exist and different instructional conditions are most likely to bring about these different types of learning.
Gagne theorises there are 5 types of learning, 9 steps of planning instruction, 8 conditions of learning and 9 events of instruction which must be present for effective learning.The 9 Events of Instruction correlate to and address the conditions of learning and although some consider these as iron-clad rules, it has been noted for some time that these 9 steps are more like guidelines or a checklist of considerations to be taken into account when designing instruction.
(Click on the image above to view an interactive course I developed on Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction).
This video gives a good overview of the Gagne theory and instructional design model, including the 5 types of learning, 9 events of instruction and 8 conditions of learning.